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I know nothing about their history at all! So, after much research, here's the highlights of what I unearthed.
Please share any Indian gambling experience you have in the comments below! The phenomenon of Indian reservation gambling began in the '70s when the Seminole tribe in Florida opened a high-stakes bingo operation, which is against Florida law.
The authorities tried to shut the instant-tourist-attraction down and a slew of lawsuits followed.
In , the Supreme Court ruled that the State did not have the right to regulate Indian reservation activities nor could they tax reservation occupants.
In , in the Cabazon Decision, the Supreme Court ruled that as long as a form of gambling is legal in the state where the reservation is located, the state can't regulate activities on the reservation.
This decision led to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which requires reservations confer with the state before offering any games that would be played against the casino such as slots or blackjack tables.
If the state refuses to negotiate—as several have—then the Secretary of the Interior works out his own deal, which is always in the favor of the Indian tribe.
Indian reservation gambling generates more income than Atlantic City and Las Vegas combined. The resort covers 4.
Mohegan Sun sports the world's largest planetarium dome. In , Mohegan Sun purchased Pocono Downs Racetrack in Pennsylvania and began operating the first slot machine casino in Pennsylvania in Tribal Casinos are not always run by the tribe itself, but often by an outside management company.
Mohegan Sun is managed by a South African company in conjunction with the tribe. Donald Trump even tried his hand at running a reservation casino when he owned and managed the Trump 29 casino in California.
It was the first Californian reservation casino to open under a non-Indian name; however Trumps ownership ended in and it's now called Spotlight Revenues from gaming are required to be used for tribal governmental and charitable ventures only.
The revenues are exempt from federal, state, and local taxes, however there are exceptions. In the cases where the revenues are divided evenly and then distributed directly to tribal members, the federal government gets a nice cut.
State taxes are often part of the agreements for large scale casinos. There are recognized tribes in the United States, only about operate full scale casinos.
There are approximately additional tribes seeking recognition. Many complain that these tribes have no real membership and are only seeking to cash in on the casino business.
Supporters of Native American rights point to centuries old treaties put in place to protect these unrecognized tribes. The Pequot tribe, which operates Foxwoods, received recognition in the early s, after the last surviving member living on the reservation died and her grandchildren came together to recreate the tribe.
This was a revolutionary idea at the time. Gaming can be extremely successful because it stimulates the economy , increases tourism to reservations, reduces unemployment , raises incomes, and increases tribal independence while reducing dependence upon welfare.
Native American gaming has created over , jobs in the United States. Revenues, by law, must go toward improving reservation communities.
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act requires that revenues go toward: For instance, tribes often build casino -related facilities that draw visitors such as hotels, conference centers, entertainment venues, golf courses , and RV parks.
Once a reservation has established a strong economic foundation, it can draw in businesses that are unrelated to gaming.
A common trend is that casinos stimulate the economy, and other business sustain it. For instance, the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians built in a water bottling plant on the reservation and, along with three other tribes, invested in a hotel in Washington, D.
The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska are involved in a number of businesses; some of which are Internet media, home manufacturing, used autos, and gas stations.
In addition to involvement in private corporations, Native nations have enough sustainability to bolster government programs.
Some of these projects include, but are not limited to: Tribes sometimes distribute funds on a per capita basis in order to directly benefit its citizens.
Furthermore, the Las Vegas Paiute Nation deducts funding for jail from the offender's per capita because the Nation itself does not have a jail and must rent it from other governments.
Punishments such as these provide an incentive for morality as well as financial assistance from the per caps themselves.
States also benefit from Native American gaming enterprises. States cannot tax reservations, but they can, under IGRA, negotiate a compact and demand compact payments.
It is required by law for a tribe to agree to a state compact if they request one, but the IGRA says nothing about local governments. However, many tribes do negotiate with local governments.
They place a strain on traffic and emergency services, and it is not uncommon for a tribe to compensate for that.
With gaming profits, the Creek Nation of Oklahoma has built its own hospital staffed by Native American doctors and nurses. Many tribes work toward securing hope for the future by improving schools.
There have been many past attempts to revitalize Native American economies, but most of them have failed. Two of the more successful ventures, besides gaming, include selling gasoline and cigarettes for a much lower price than can be found off the reservation.
Tribes are able to sell cheaper goods because there is no state tax. Lower prices draw in non-Natives from off-reservation sites, and tribes are able to earn a considerable profit.
Smokeshops account for most of this substantial increase. Less effective efforts by the Seminole Nation to boost the economy include cattle raising, craft selling, and alligator wrestling.
However, cattle operations are not overwhelmingly successful because they have been known to benefit the individual rather than the tribe. In addition, cattle operations led to government dependency and debt.
Another economic endeavor is craft sales. Some individuals create traditional Seminole crafts and sell them, but this market does not leave a huge impact on the tribal economy.
Instead, it benefits the individual as a supplementary income. Alligator wrestling is yet another moneymaker but is not relied upon.
The IGWG's purpose is to identify resources to address the most pressing criminal violations in the area of Native gaming. This group consists of representatives from a variety of FBI subprograms i.
The IGWG meets monthly to review Native gaming cases deemed to have a significant impact on the Native gaming industry. As a result of these meetings, several investigations have been initiated and the IGWG, through its member agencies, has provided financial resources, travel funds, liaison assistance, personnel resources, coordination assistance and consultation.
In order to properly detect the presence of illegal activity in the Native gaming industry, law enforcement offices with jurisdiction in Native gaming violations should:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For gambling in India, see Gambling in India. Tribal sovereignty in the United States.
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Impact of Native American gaming. National Indian Gaming Commission. Archived from the original PDF on Washburn, "The Legacy of Bryan v.
Wicazo Sa Review , 12 1 , John Wiley and Sons. Evidence of Recession and Recovery". Atlas of The North American Indian. Landscape Traveled by Coyote and Crane: The World of the Schitsu'umsh.
University of Washington Press; Paper edition. Game of Delicate Balance". Park Place Entertainment, F. Retrieved 18 January Rights of Native Americans in the United States.
M'Intosh Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Worcester v. Georgia Fellows v. Blacksmith New York ex rel. Dibble Standing Bear v.
Wilkins Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy Talton v. Mayes Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
United States Williams v. Lee Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation Menominee Tribe v. United States McClanahan v. County of Oneida Bryan v.
Itasca County United States v. Antelope Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez Merrion v.